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However, Jack Amos legally challenged the Choctaw Nation's stance at the turn of the 20th century.
In 1978, the United Supreme Court of the United States held that all remnants of the Choctaw Nation are entitled to all rights of the federally recognized Nation.
By the 1831 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, those Choctaw who chose to stay in the newly formed state of Mississippi were to be considered state and U. citizens; they were one of the first major non-European ethnic groups to be granted citizenship.
(Article 14 in the 1830 treaty with the Choctaw stated Choctaws may wish to become citizens of the United States under the 14th Article of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek on all of the combined lands which were consolidated under Article I from all previous treaties between the United States and the Choctaw.
The Choctaw and the United States (US) agreed to nine treaties.
By the last three, the US gained vast land cessions; they removed most Choctaw west of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory, sending them on a forced migration far from their homelands. was wanting to use its resources, The Choctaw negotiated the largest area and most desirable lands in Indian Territory.
The Choctaw were the first Native American tribe forced to relocate under the Indian Removal Act. Their early government had three districts, each with its own chief, who together with the town chiefs sat on their National Council.
These different groups sometimes created distinct, independent alliances with nearby European powers.
Direct evidence in the Southeast is meager, but archaeological discoveries in related areas support this hypothesis. Moundbuilding cultures included the Woodland period people who first built Nanih Waiya.
Scholars believe the mound was contemporary with such earthworks as Igomar Mound in Mississippi and Pinson Mounds in Tennessee.
The Choctaw are the third-largest federally recognized tribe.
Since the mid-twentieth century, the Choctaw have created new institutions, such as a tribal college, housing authority, and justice system. 4101 called the Native American Housing Self-Determination Act of 1986 (formerly the "Indian" Housing Act of 1937) under which the United States Federal Government jointly owns the MOWA Choctaw Indian Reservation as land held in trust as a reservation and for the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians per multiple deeds in public records in Mobile County, Alabama Department of Revenue Records.